|ERIC ED317369: Managing the Organizational Culture of Rural Schools: Creating Environments for Human Development. - ERIC|
The factors of people, technology, structure, and task provide a sociotechnical model for understanding the essential elements of schools as organizations. Schools can be understood as cultures and managed as such. Effective schools focus on a task-oriented organizational culture that meaningfully involves all participants in the key elements of the decision-making process. The specific elements through which organizational culture is preserved, expressed and conveyed are: (1) its history; (2) i...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Elementary Secondary Education; Organizational Climate; Rural Education; Rural Schools; Small Schools
|Rag Radio 2013-08-30 - 'Small Schools' Advocate & Former SDS Leader Mike Klonsky - Rag Radio with Thorne Dreyer|
Mike Klonsky -- Thorne Dreyer's guest on Rag Radio -- is an educator, an education theorist, a public schools activist, and a “Small Schools” advocate. A veteran of the Civil Rights Movement and the struggle against the War in Vietnam, Klonsky was a leader in Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), serving as SDS National Secretary in 1968, and has been involved in community and labor organizing as well as the fight for democratic education...
Keywords: Rag Radio; Mike Klonsky; Education Reform; Small Schools; Public Education; SDS; Authors; Educators
|ERIC ED307085: Designing Organizational Effectiveness Studies of Rural and Small School Districts. - ERIC|
Considerable attention has been given to organizational effectiveness of public sector organizations at all levels: local, state, and federal. Public education has not escaped scrutiny. Current examinations of the effectiveness, efficiency, and quality of education are more intense than that of other public sector organizations. The organizational effectiveness of rural small school districts has been of particular interest...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Elementary Secondary Education; Organizational Effectiveness; Research Design; Rural Schools; School Districts; Small Schools
|An investigation of the comparative standing of pupils from one-teacher elementary schools and graded schools when working together in the high school - Lewis, Charles D. (Charles Dickens), b. 1875|
Thesis (M.A.)--University of Illinois, 1917
Keywords: Academic achievement; Small schools; School size; School children; High school students; Education, Elementary; Education, Secondary; Theses
|ERIC ED360133: North Carolina Rural Initiative Study of Secondary Schools: Funding Effects on Depth of the Curriculum. - ERIC|
This paper examines the relationship between school size and funding levels in North Carolina secondary schools. Data included information from 94 secondary schools concerning classes offered, school enrollment and staffing, school size and location, funding levels, and student achievement in eight selected subjects; principal and teacher interviews in selected secondary schools and feeder elementary schools; and supportive data from state and census archives...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Academic Achievement; Educational Equity (Finance); Financial Support; High Schools; School Size; Secondary School Curriculum; Small Schools
|ERIC ED344707: Overcoming Professional Isolation in Small, Rural Schools. - ERIC|
This report examines the issues, needs, and strategies related to professional development in small, rural schools in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington. Information was gathered by a survey, a series of rural education forums, and case study interviews. Respondents of the survey and participants of forums were legislators, practitioners, members of professional associations, and state policymakers...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Change Strategies; Elementary Secondary Education; Professional Development; Program Descriptions; Program Implementation; Rural Schools; Small Schools; Teacher Effectiveness
|ERIC ED310505: The Cost of Small Schools. - ERIC|
Despite all the rhetoric about the quality aspect of small schools, the discussion inevitably boils down to a consideration of cost. The issue of cost differentials associated with school size requires an examination of the cost implications of alternatives. There are definite economies of scale associated with size; however, there also appears to be a point at which costs begin to rise relative to increased size...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Cost Effectiveness; Educational Finance; Elementary Secondary Education; Financial Problems; Foreign Countries; School Size; Small Schools
|ERIC ED329385: Literature Search on the Question: What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Various Scheduling Options for Small Secondary Schools (High Schools and Middle Schools)? - ERIC|
Thorough investigation of scheduling options is needed to facilitate the development of a tailor-made schedule for the small school. The traditional scheduling model usually only works well in urban or suburban schools. When this mass production model is imposed on small schools, student needs become secondary to the dictates of the schedule. The traditional model offers security and ease of scheduling work experience programs...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Class Organization; Literature Reviews; Scheduling; School Organization; School Schedules; Secondary Education; Small Schools; Student Needs; Time Blocks
|ERIC ED376391: Factors Associated with Attitude toward Alcohol in Small High Schools. - ERIC|
Alcohol use among urban youth has been regularly surveyed, but assessment of rural residents is rare. Information about factors associated with attitudes toward drinking could be especially useful to school counselors. This study used questionnaires to investigate the association of attitudes toward alcohol and alcohol use with the following independent variables: grade; gender; community; perceived peer attitude; perceived parental attitude; and knowledge of alcohol...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Adolescents; Alcohol Abuse; Alcohol Education; Drinking; High Schools; Parent Attitudes; Peer Influence; Rural Youth; Small Schools; Student Attitudes
|ERIC ED363491: A National Survey of Distance Education Use in Rural School Districts of 300 Students or Less. - ERIC|
Distance education technologies can help rural schools overcome the disadvantages of geographic isolation by expanding course offerings and learning opportunities and by connecting teachers with resource materials and training programs. Classroom-focused distance learning is distance insensitive and implies simultaneous instruction of several small groups of students at different sites. Network-focused distance learning, on the other hand, is both distance and time insensitive and connotes the u...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Administrator Attitudes; Distance Education; Elementary Secondary Education; National Surveys; Rural Education; Rural Schools; School Districts; Small Schools; Telecommunications
|ERIC ED340547: The Distance Education Handbook. An Administrator's Guide for Rural and Remote Schools. - ERIC|
This handbook presents a snapshot view of the use of telecommunications technologies to deliver instruction to distant audiences of K-12 students in the United States. The information is intended specifically for people who work in and with small, rural, or remote schools. Available technologies and programming vary widely in offerings and quality. Before selecting a particular program or distant learning system, administrators must consider the issues of the system's purpose, who controls the s...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Administrator Guides; Distance Education; Educational Planning; Educational Research; Elementary Secondary Education; Rural Education; Rural Schools; Small Schools; Telecommunications
|ERIC ED323056: Rural and Small Schools: Excellence for All. Annual Rural and Small Schools Conference (10th, Manhattan, Kansas, October 24-25, 1988). - ERIC|
This document contains the full text of the conference keynote address and abstracts of conference papers. The keynote address--"Excellence in Rural Education: Our Heritage and Our Future," by Duane M. Nielsen--outlines: (1) demographic changes in rural America in the 1970s and 1980s; (2) the challenges facing rural education due to increasing educational demands and requirements and diminishing financial support; (3) issues of rural education needing further research and development; and (4) th...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Abstracts; Elementary Secondary Education; Higher Education; Rural Education; Rural Schools; Science Education; Small Schools; Special Education
|ERIC ED317337: The Four Day School Week: An Investigation and Analysis. - ERIC|
Students in about 100 schools in 10 states attend classes 4 days a week, for all or part of the school year. A growing number of rural schools, faced with declining enrollments and diminishing state aid, are experimenting with this schedule. Benefits of the schedule include lower energy and transportation costs and lower absenteeism among students and teachers. Holding classes 7.5 hours a day, 4 days a week, provides the same amount of instructional time as the traditional schedule, but with mor...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Academic Achievement; Educational Assessment; Elementary Secondary Education; Retrenchment; Rural Schools; School Districts; School Schedules; Small Schools
|ERIC ED215807: Excellence through Creative Recruitment and Retention of Staff for Rural and Small Schools. - ERIC|
There is not any one thing or any one group that can solve all the problems involved in staffing rural and small schools. It is quite common to find a bimodel distribution of teaching faculty in rural and small schools--those with less than 3 years and those with more than 10 years of experience. It could be inferred that either recruitment strategies and hiring criteria are inappropriate, or there are factors that cause a sizable group to leave teaching in that district in the early years of th...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Elementary Secondary Education; Faculty Recruitment; Labor Turnover; Professional Education; Rural Schools; Small Schools; Teacher Persistence
|ERIC ED232798: The Small School Principal and School-Community Relations. Small Schools Fact Sheet. - ERIC|
The skills needed by the principal for developing and maintaining good school/community relations are synthesized from recent research and presented in this brief document. These universal concepts are applicable to both large and small schools. The topics included are the principal's responsibility to the community, necessary political skills, common problems and expected roles of parents and citizens...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Administrator Role; Check Lists; Community Involvement; Community Support; Elementary Secondary Education; Principals; School Community Relationship; Small Schools
|ERIC ED223377: Helping Rural Educators Improve Instruction Through Mental Rehearsal. - ERIC|
A solution to staff development and instructional improvement for rural and small school teachers is through self-initiated and/or self-styled improvement programs using the mental rehearsal strategy. Mental rehearsal is the process of using imagery to practice teaching behavior before actually teaching. If rural educators can be trained to mentally rehearse methods, activities, demonstrations, and teaching behavior, they can provide themselves with a means of instructional improvement through t...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Educational Innovation; Educational Strategies; Elementary Secondary Education; Instructional Improvement; Rural Education; Small Schools; Teacher Improvement
|ERIC ED254358: Education and Equity in Rural America: 1984 and Beyond. Proceedings of the Annual Rural and Small Schools Conference (6th, Manhattan, Kansas, October 29-30, 1984). - ERIC|
The proceedings consist of the entire major addresses of Senator Nancy Landon Kassebaum, Steve Miller, and Walter Turner, and abbreviated versions of 29 other papers or presentations. The materials deal with a variety of rural-focused topics: women (Evelyn Hausmann); teacher career ladder plans (Paul Burden); inservice (Robert Norton, Myron Ballain, Dian Castle); Iowa's small rural districts (William Drier); Nebraska's Center for Rural Education and Small Schools (Roger Hanson and Frank Shaugnes...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Adult Education; Elementary Secondary Education; Higher Education; Inservice Teacher Education; Rural Education; Rural Schools; Small Schools; Teacher Effectiveness
|ERIC ED281271: Is Big Better? Fact or Fad Concerning School District Organization. - ERIC|
A questionnaire responded to by 34 randomly selected Illinois school districts with high school enrollments under 500 provided information contradicting an Illinois State Board of Education report that cast doubt on the educational effectiveness of smaller schools. The questionnaire's first section sought information about each district's enrollment, operating expenses, tuition costs, salaries, numbers of 1985 graduates, and numbers of dropouts...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Curriculum; Educational Quality; Expenditure per Student; Extracurricular Activities; School Effectiveness; School Size; Small Schools; State Surveys
|ERIC ED237254: Basic Skills Centers for Small High Schools. - ERIC|
A skills center can help students who are not able to demonstrate appropriate mastery level skills in reading and mathematics. The Girard school system (Kansas) has had two skills centers operating successfully since 1975. Individualized methods combined with group interaction are used to accommodate individuality and different learning styles. Girard uses units of instruction (mostly teacher-made) which consist of goals and objectives, pre-tests, information, exercises, post-tests, remediation,...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Basic Skills; Individualized Education Programs; Individualized Instruction; Mathematics Instruction; Reading Instruction; Secondary Education; Skill Centers; Small Schools
|ERIC ED307094: Teacher Recruitment in Three Rural Louisiana Parishes: The Development of Recruitment Materials. - ERIC|
Prior research has suggested that solutions to teacher labor market problems must take into account the importance of local context and indigenous labor market forces. With this in mind, three rural school systems in north Louisiana collaborated with the Louisiana Center for Rural or Small Schools (LaCROSS) to develop teacher recruitment materials. LaCROSS researchers interviewed school administrators, teachers, and local officials to determine the elements in each parish and its schools that mi...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Advertising; Institutional Cooperation; Labor Market; Material Development; Rural Schools; School Districts; Small Schools; Teacher Recruitment; Teachers; Teaching Conditions
|ERIC ED369004: Stress and Western Kansas High School Students. - ERIC|
Research on adolescent stress indicates that most high school students have experienced stress. This study was conducted to learn more about stress in western Kansas high school students. The sample was from 1A schools, defined as having less than 75 students enrolled in grades 10 to 12. Three-hundred twenty-two students participated. Stress was scored from the following scales of the Stress Questionnaire: (1) School; (2) Relationships; (3) Self; and (4) Total...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Adolescents; Family Characteristics; Females; High School Students; High Schools; Males; Religious Factors; Sex Differences; Small Schools; Stress Variables
|ERIC ED259874: Shared Services for Rural and Small Schools. - ERIC|
As school populations decline and costs rise due to inflation, rural and small schools are turning to shared services in order to keep community schools open, meet federal mandates, and improve educational opportunities. Sharing ventures may be for limited purposes, such as sharing a physics teacher or having a joint drama production, or for more permanent programs such as a regional vocational education or media center...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Change Strategies; Consortia; Cooperative Programs; Educational Cooperation; Educational Trends; Elementary Secondary Education; Rural Schools; Shared Services; Small Schools
|ERIC ED357910: Developing Supplemental Funding: Initiatives for Rural and Small Schools. ERIC Digest. - ERIC|
Rural and small schools face difficult financial times. Given long-term economic decline and eroding tax bases in rural areas, many rural and small schools may need supplemental funding just to preserve essential programs and services. A list of fundraising strategies provides options that should be feasible whatever the level of local expertise. School fundraising is often a short-term effort. A more stable and predictable source of income can be provided by development funds that target long-t...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Elementary Secondary Education; Fund Raising; Rural Schools; School Community Relationship; School Funds; School Support; Small Schools
|ERIC ED389499: Creativity Versus Dollars: How Rural Schools in One State Have Maintained or Improved Their Extra-Curricular Programs in the Face of Funding Cuts. - ERIC|
Extracurricular activities are an important part of students' lives in small-town Montana. In 1994, the Montana state legislature cut its share of funding to public schools by 4 percent, raising concerns about what would be cut and whether extracurricular activities would be affected. A survey of 228 Montana school districts (47 percent of total) found that 88 had made no cuts, 89 had cut supplies and equipment, but only 17 had cut extracurricular activities...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Athletics; Budgeting; Extracurricular Activities; High Schools; Institutional Cooperation; Retrenchment; Rural Schools; School Districts; School Size; School Surveys; Small Schools; State Surveys; Tables (Data)
|ERIC ED368531: A Case Study of the Impact of a State-Level Policy Designed To Improve Rural Schools in the State of Vermont. Occasional Paper No. 36. - ERIC|
This case study examines how rural K-12 single-unit schools in Vermont have responded to the twin pressures of higher state-level standards, required under the 1984 Public School Approval (PSA) policy, and limited fiscal resources. Chapter 1 provides background information on the study population, economic and educational conditions in Vermont, and PSA standards and review processes. In chapter 2, a literature review considers the diverse, special characteristics of small, rural schools...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Case Studies; Educational Change; Educational Improvement; Educational Innovation; Educational Legislation; Educational Policy; Elementary Secondary Education; Financial Problems; Financial Support; Rural Schools; Small Schools; State Standards
|ERIC ED387707: Positive Academic and Affective Student Outcomes at a Small School for At-Risk Adolescents through Ongoing Teacher Consultation with a Marriage, Family, Child Counselor. - ERIC|
As American schools struggle to meet the needs of an increasingly disenfranchised adolescent population, many models of restructuring are tried. This study explores one school for at-risk students wherein teachers worked weekly with a therapist. Positive student outcomes garnered through this educational and therapeutic process are examined. An anonymous survey was administered to 15 students addressing: (1) curriculum; (2) policies; (3) teacher attitude; and (4) quality of relationships between...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Adolescents; At Risk Persons; Family Counseling; High Risk Students; High Schools; Interviews; Outcomes of Education; Outcomes of Treatment; Small Schools; Student Attitudes; Teacher Student Relationship
|ERIC ED376996: Small Scale and School Culture: The Experience of Private Schools. ERIC Digest. - ERIC|
It is a widely held perception in this country that private schools are superior to public schools. This digest examines school size and school culture as they relate to the high quality of education in private schools. The average private school is about half the size of the average public school. Reflecting Tonnies' (Ferdinand Tonnies, 1887) conception of "gemeinschaft" institutions, small private schools exhibit distinctive school cultures based on shared purposes, personal loyalties, and com...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Educational Environment; Educational Quality; Elementary Secondary Education; Institutional Characteristics; Institutional Environment; Interpersonal Relationship; Private Schools; School Attitudes; School Culture; School Size; Small Schools
|ERIC ED342557: Physical Education for Individuals with Disabilities in Washington State's Rural School Districts. - ERIC|
This study investigated the nature and extent of physical education programs for individuals with disabilities in Washington State's small rural public school districts. Questionnaires were sent to 185 superintendents of small rural school districts in the state. Of the 128 responses, 70.3% enrolled individuals with disabilities. Fifty-eight percent of those districts with students with disabilities offered a program in physical education for disabled students...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Adapted Physical Education; Disabilities; Elementary Secondary Education; Individualized Education Programs; Physical Education; Rural Schools; Small Schools; Special Education; Superintendents
|ERIC ED310907: Management Strategies for Administrators in Small Schools. Small Schools Network Information Exchange, Number 7. - ERIC|
This information packet contains journal articles, book chapters, conference papers, and ERIC clearinghouse publications on small schools management strategies for superintendents and principals. Topics cover (1) elements of formal team management; (2) role of the administrator in creating the environment necessary for effective schools; (3) benefits and problems of the combined superintendent-principal position; (4) improving public relations in the rural school district; (5) problems and solut...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Administrator Role; Elementary Secondary Education; Management Teams; Participative Decision Making; Principals; Resource Materials; Rural Schools; School Administration; Small Schools; Superintendents; Supervisory Methods
|ERIC ED336247: Extracurricular Participation and Achievement: School Size as Possible Mediator of SES Influence among Individual Students. - ERIC|
Studies in New Jersey and California suggest that smaller schools or school districts produce higher aggregate achievement than larger schools or districts, especially in low socioeconomic status (SES) communities. Other studies have found that smaller schools have higher rates of student participation in extracurricular activities, and that participation has a positive effect on student outcomes. This paper examines a model in which school size regulates the direct effect of SES on individual a...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Academic Achievement; Correlation; Extracurricular Activities; High School Students; High Schools; Racial Differences; School Size; Sex Differences; Small Schools; Socioeconomic Status; Student Participation
|ERIC ED326364: The Iowa Shared Superintendency: The School Board President's Perspective. - ERIC|
In Iowa, shared superintendency originated in the 1980s as a response to the agricultural recession of the 1980s which had tightened Iowa's public school finance. Iowa lost 80,000 people through out-migration and about 10,000 fewer births occurred, while the school student population decreased by 181,670 during this same period. While nearly every school district in the state has been touched by these declines, rural areas and smaller schools have tended to lose the greatest percentages of popul...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Boards of Education; Elementary Secondary Education; Interviews; Program Evaluation; Rural Areas; Rural Schools; School Administration; School Attitudes; School Districts; Shared Resources and Services; Small Schools; Superintendents
|ERIC ED336250: Mitigating Disadvantage: Effects of Small-Scale Schooling on Student Achievement in Alaska. - ERIC|
This paper examines the hypothesis that school size mediates the effect of disadvantaged status on the achievement of individual students. A previous study using national data from the High School and Beyond data set failed to confirm the hypothesis. This study sought to test the hypothesis further by limiting the analysis to students in a single state, using multiple indicators of educational disadvantage, and applying more rigorous control over background variables known to affect academic ach...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Academic Achievement; Educationally Disadvantaged; Intermediate Grades; Junior High Schools; Multiple Regression Analysis; Rural Education; School Size; Small Schools; Socioeconomic Status; Student Characteristics
|ERIC ED326339: Newer Types of Instruction in Small Rural Schools. Yearbook 1938. - ERIC|
This publication describes adaptations of teaching methods and instructional materials to meet the special needs of rural students in the late 1930s. These "newer" types of instruction were often child centered, and included: (1) grouping subject matter into broad divisions such as social studies and language arts rather than the traditional "history,""English," etc.; (2) teaching specific skills as the need arose; (3) using materials based on the needs and experiences of students; (4) using a w...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Educational History; Educational Philosophy; Educational Practices; Elementary Education; Individualized Instruction; Instructional Materials; Rural Education; Rural Schools; Small Schools; Student Centered Curriculum; Teaching Methods
|ERIC ED310893: Establishing and Enriching School-Community Ties in Small Schools. Small Schools Network Information Exchange Number 6. - ERIC|
This information packet contains 14 articles reprinted from various books and journals. Establishing and enriching school-community ties in small schools is the theme for this "Information Exchange Packet," the sixth in a series developed for Small Schools Network members. The articles and their authors are: "Skills in Building Support for Schools" (John R. Hoyle and others); "Education and Community Development: What Can the School Do?" (Adrian Bell and Alan Sigsworth); "Barriers to Greater Con...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Community Support; Elementary Secondary Education; Family School Relationship; Parent School Relationship; Public Relations; School Business Relationship; School Community Programs; School Community Relationship; School Support; Small Schools
|ERIC ED323909: The Promise of Distance Learning. Policy Briefs Number Eight. - ERIC|
Designed to help educators and policymakers consider the effective use of currently-evolving distance learning technologies, this policy brief examines: (1) the need for distance learning; (2) the most promising combinations of technologies (two-way television, one-way television with audio return, and audiographics); (3) the cost-effectiveness of these three technology systems; (4) actual projects using these three systems; and (5) the issues of policy implementation that districts and states a...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Computer Assisted Instruction; Cost Effectiveness; Distance Education; Educational Policy; Educational Television; Elementary Secondary Education; Higher Education; Instructional Development; Interaction; Program Implementation; Rural Schools; Small Schools; Telecommunications
|ERIC ED326352: Successful Instructional Practices for Small Schools. ERIC Digest. - ERIC|
This digest presents recent findings about effective instructional practices for classroom teachers in small schools. In terms of instruction, small schools have two characteristics: a broader scope of teacher responsibilities and more instructional levels per classroom. Teachers in small schools have the opportunity to develop the student as a learner and to include collaborative learning experiences...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Classroom Techniques; Cooperative Learning; Educational Strategies; Elementary Secondary Education; Instructional Improvement; Rural Schools; School Size; Small Schools; Teacher Expectations of Students; Teaching Methods
|ERIC ED314677: Preventing Teenage Pregnancies in Rural America. - ERIC|
Two-thirds of all schools in the United States are rural and three-fourths are small. Statistically, most teenage parents are from such school systems. Yet the problem of teenage pregnancy is most frequently overlooked by rural and small school communities. In fact, some cultural factors and resource deficiencies of these communities actually facilitate early pregnancy. The emotional, educational, and medical effects of teenage parenting are particularly serious for our society as a whole...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Adolescents; Counseling; Early Parenthood; Health Education; Parent Child Relationship; Pregnancy; Prevention; Rural Schools; Secondary Education; Secondary School Students; Sex Education; Small Schools; Social Problems
|ERIC ED328383: Recruiting and Retaining Teachers in Rural Schools. Far West Laboratory Knowledge Brief. Number Four. - ERIC|
Rural schools are having difficulty recruiting and retaining teachers. The national teacher turnover rate is 6% annually, but in rural areas reaches 30% to 50%. Rural teachers often leave due to social, cultural, geographic, and professional isolation. They are often unprepared for rural realities that demand knowledge in multiple subjects and know-how, in conducting a range of school activities. Few universities offer preservice programs that prepare teachers for rural jobs...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Elementary Secondary Education; Faculty Mobility; Faculty Recruitment; Rural Education; Rural Schools; Small Schools; Teacher Employment; Teacher Recruitment; Teacher Selection; Teacher Shortage; Teacher Supply and Demand; Teachers
|ERIC ED328399: Patterns for Country Stars: Systematic Staff Development for Rural, Small Schools. - ERIC|
This document is a stand-alone training package for staff development providers in rural small schools. Based on research and best-practice information, the school improvement model used promotes cooperation, content transferability, and adaptations for long-term program maintenance. The underlying assumptions of the model are that when school improvement is to be brought about through staff development, the staff development should be: (1) related to district goals and priorities; (2) focused o...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Educational Improvement; Educational Planning; Elementary Secondary Education; Improvement Programs; Models; Participative Decision Making; Rural Schools; Small Schools; Staff Development; Team Training; Teamwork; Transparencies
|ERIC ED316367: The Impact of a Computer-Managed Instructional System on Two Small Rural Schools in the Middle Atlantic Region. Guidelines. - ERIC|
In 1987-88 three small, rural elementary schools were demonstration sites for implementation of a computer-managed instructional (CMI) program. The schools were located in Anne Arundel County, Maryland; Palmyra, New Jersey; and northern York County, Pennsylvania. Implementation costs were supported by the school districts, federal grant money, and a CMI-system vendor. Implementation process involved: (1) negotiations with the school districts; (2) facilities modification; (3) hiring of full-time...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Computer Managed Instruction; Computer Oriented Programs; Demonstration Programs; Educational Technology; Elementary Education; Elementary Schools; Program Evaluation; Program Implementation; Questionnaires; Rural Schools; Small Schools
|ERIC ED368527: Implementation of a Rural Program To Reduce the Drop-out Rate of 9th- and 10th-Grade At-Risk Students. - ERIC|
A program was developed to reduce the rising dropout rate of 9th- and 10th-grade students at Lewisville High School, a small rural school in Chester County, South Carolina. In the face of limited financial resources, the program manager coordinated existing services and networked with community agencies. School records, surveys, and questionnaires revealed that 45 students identified as at-risk had a variety of problems, including excessive failing grades, tardiness and absences, discipline prob...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Academic Achievement; Agency Cooperation; Coordination; Dropout Prevention; High Risk Students; High Schools; Mentors; Parent Participation; Rural Education; Self Esteem; Small Schools; Student Attitudes
|ERIC ED325835: Wisconsin Rural Reading Improvement Project 1987-1988. Evaluation Summary. - ERIC|
This evaluation summary synthesizes the results of the first year of the Wisconsin Rural Reading Improvement Project (WRRIP), a project aimed at helping small, rural schools improve reading instruction by teaching reading as thinking (also termed "strategic reading"). The means used is staff development: specifically, a leadership team composed of a school principal, the reading specialist, and the media specialist work together to support targeted teachers in reading instruction while informati...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Distance Education; Elementary Secondary Education; Instructional Improvement; Program Evaluation; Reading Improvement; Reading Instruction; Reading Programs; Reading Strategies; Rural Schools; Small Schools; Staff Development; Teacher Improvement
|ERIC ED303890: Making a Big School Smaller: The School-Within-a-School Arrangement for Middle Level Schools. - ERIC|
Although there is controversy as to whether middle-level education should be more comparable to high school or to elementary school, this paper argues that the school within a school (SWAS) concept effectively makes large schools seem small so that they have more in common with a typical K-5 school than with a grade-10-through-12 high school. The advantages of such an arrangement permit medium-sized and large middle schools to divide into smaller subunits called "houses." The house plan tends to...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Educational Change; Educational Improvement; Educational Innovation; Elementary Education; House Plan; Junior High Schools; Middle Schools; Nontraditional Education; School Organization; School Size; Small Group Instruction; Small Schools
|ERIC ED320739: Staff Development in Rural and Small Schools. Small Schools Network Information Exchange. Number 8. - ERIC|
This packet contains 24 articles reprinted from books and journals dealing with effective staff development in small and rural schools. The articles are arranged in four sections. The first section reviews current research on staff development, discussing workable ideas, decision making principles, and general characteristics of effective staff development program. The second section contains detailed reports on specific staff development programs and efforts at the district and school levels, i...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Continuing Education; Elementary Secondary Education; Faculty Development; Inservice Education; Program Descriptions; Public Schools; Rural Schools; Small Schools; Staff Development
|ERIC ED335178: Teaching and Learning in the Multigrade Classroom: Student Performance and Instructional Routines. ERIC Digest. - ERIC|
This ERIC digest reviews the history of the multigrade classroom, and summarizes research findings on multigrading effects on achievement and attitude. It also states requirements of teaching and learning in multigrade classrooms. Multigrade classrooms have ranged from the one-room schools of the early 1900s to the ungraded classroom of the 1960s and 1970s, to the cost effective two grade classrooms of today...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Academic Achievement; Class Organization; Classroom Techniques; Educational History; Educational Research; Elementary Education; Multigraded Classes; Small Schools; Student Attitudes; Teaching Methods; Teaching Skills
|ERIC ED317359: Rural School Board Presidents Look at School Reorganization. - ERIC|
School consolidation or reorganization continues to be a controversial issue in rural areas, with many contentions and claims about the advantages and disadvantages of small schools at the center of the debate. In fall 1986, a Nebraska survey examined attitudes toward school size and reorganization issues among school board presidents. Respondents were 81 board presidents from K-8 districts and 32 board presidents from K-12 districts that had been reorganized in 1980-85...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Boards of Education; Consolidated Schools; Elementary Secondary Education; Mail Surveys; Rural Schools; School Attitudes; School District Reorganization; School District Size; School Districts; School Size; Small Schools
|ERIC ED310891: The North Park Project: Effective Schools/Effective Teachers. - ERIC|
The staff of North Park School, a small urban/suburban primary school (K-3) in Wheeling, West Virginia, made their school more effective by implementing well planned and coordinated changes based on current research. The belief that all students can learn is an important characteristic of an effective school. Therefore, the goal of the North Park Project was a learning climate in which students would achieve, whatever their socioeconomic or ethnic background...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Change Strategies; Educational Change; Educational Environment; Educational Objectives; Educational Planning; Improvement Programs; Primary Education; Research Utilization; School Effectiveness; Small Schools
|ERIC ED312110: Rural Education: A Changing Landscape. - ERIC|
This collection features 11 papers from a national symposium on rural education. The papers are consistent in noting that while there are common elements among all schools regardless of location, rural schools operate within a unique context. Several papers address the diversity of rural locales and the challenges educators face in such locales. Other papers discuss characteristics of rural youth and schooling, rural school improvement strategies, and special problems and issues--such as the unp...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Educational Improvement; Educational Needs; Elementary Secondary Education; Rural Areas; Rural Development; Rural Economics; Rural Education; Rural Schools; Rural Urban Differences; Small Schools; Socioeconomic Influences
|ERIC ED303295: Teacher Effectiveness via Interactive Satellite: Preliminary Findings from Observation of Three Teachers over the TI-IN Interactive Satellite Network. - ERIC|
Communications satellites transmit live interactive television broadcasts from a host site classroom to small and geographically isolated rural high schools. Using the research on effective teaching practices, this study examined the effectiveness of instruction delivered by satellite. Researchers observed 15 hours of three courses (Computer Science I, Art History I, and Sociology I) on the TI-IN Network...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Advance Organizers; Communications Satellites; Distance Education; High Schools; Information Networks; Questioning Techniques; Rural Schools; Small Schools; Teacher Effectiveness; Teacher Student Relationship; Teaching Methods; Telecommunications
|ERIC ED352239: A Day in the Life of a Rural School. - ERIC|
This paper describes the field experience of 30 undergraduate students in a teacher education program at the University of North Dakota. As part of an introductory teaching and learning course, teacher education students prepared for and taught elementary students in a small, rural school for one-day. The school enrolled 80 children in kindergarten through 4th grade and a combined class of 5th and 6th grades...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; College School Cooperation; College Students; Elementary Education; Field Experience Programs; Higher Education; Preservice Teacher Education; Rural Schools; Small Schools; Teaching Experience